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The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand for wheat grain classification
  • The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand for wheat grain classification
  • The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand for wheat grain classification

The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand for wheat grain classification

Code:2437
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Country of manufacture:Ukraine
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Description
The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand for wheat grain classification

The concentrator of the KZH-9 brand (further - the concentrator) is intended for wheat grain classification, and also other grain crops (barley, oats) by density.

The new mechanized line and technology of preparation of high-quality sowing material

Kirpa N. Ya., the doctor of page - x. GU sciences Institute of agriculture of steppe zone NAAN

Mishchenko M. I., director STALEMATE "the Horolsky mechanical plant"

Cooper L.N., graduate student

Quality and exit of finished goods, especially sowing material, substantially depends on its technology of postharvest processing. In system of processing the largest volumes are occupied by separation of grain masses, their cleaning sorting. For these operations various cars which first of all are calculated on the large enterprises are offered. For usual farms of the seed-growing direction the range of the offered cars, especially in a complex, is extremely limited. Therefore the new mechanized line and technology of preparation of high-quality sowing material of grain, leguminous and oil-bearing crops, and also hybrids of corn and their initial forms is offered for such farms.

In technologies of cultivation of grain crops an indispensable condition is use for crops of high-quality sowing material. Meeting this condition it is possible to receive bystry uniform shoots, the developed plants with the high level of efficiency. It is established that at crops by qualitative seeds field viability increases by 8-12%, the increase of a harvest makes 18-20% and above [1-3].

Quality of seeds is defined by various indicators which can be divided into the main and additional. Those which are established by normative documents on finished goods - standards, specifications, instructions depending on concrete culture concern to the main. For grain crops the main indicators are such which characterize extent of germination of seeds - viability, energy of germination and force of growth.

Additional indicators are considered usually in processing and preparation of sowing material, they serve for check of correctness of technology. The size and volume of seeds, weight and specific mass of a seed, their integrity or extent of traumatizing concern to them. Additional are connected with the main indicators by direct dependence, with deterioration in the first the second, as a rule, worsen.

Quality indicators substantially depend on how cleaning and postharvest processing of seed material is carried out. Only at observance of all technical and technological systems, optimum for concrete culture, it is possible to receive high-quality sowing material from seed material.

Technical and technological system of postharvest processing include a number of separate operations which significantly influence quality of grain. The range of operations and their parameters depend on features of concrete culture, its state and appointment. The analysis shows that corn has the most saturated system of postharvest completion by preparation of sowing material (tab. 1). From among the main operations only two (conservation and storage of grain in a damp state) do not apply by preparation of seeds of this culture.

Reception and placement of grain. Is obligatory operation for all cultures and grain of any appointment. But special value has at intake of food and seed grain, for the purpose of allocation and formation of parties of various quality.


Table 1. The range of the main technological operations in system of postharvest processing of grain of different function

Operation Grain grains, leguminous, krupyany, sunflower Corn
grain seeds grain seeds
Prodovolstvenno - technical Fodder Prodovolstveno - technical fodder
Reception and placement + + + + + +
Cleaning:

- preliminary

- primary

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

Sorting:

- basic

- special

+

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

-

+

+

Drying + + + + + +
Thresh - - - + + +
Conservation + + - + + -
Storage:

- grain dry

- grain damp

+

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

+

+

-

Chemical processing + - + + - +
Packing, packing - - + - - +

Cleaning. Practically, all volume of the grain arriving from the field is subject to preliminary cleaning. Even when cleaning dry grain preliminary cleaning is necessary for office of impurity, unstable at storage, and dust removal of grain weight. Technical and technological feature of operation is high efficiency of process that allows to process quickly in a short time big consignments of grain.

Primary cleaning is necessary for food and seed grain and allows to emit the main grain in the pass range from the top sieve and a descent from lower. Differs from preliminary both in an operating mode, and extent of cleaning.

Sorting. Sorting, as well as cleaning, is based on the general technical and technical criteria for divisibility and the principles of sorting of grain masses. Differs from cleaning in the fact that the main pure grain is divided into separate fractions of various quality. At the classical scheme for sorting it is required to have 3 sieves from which the average carries out the main role, the others - on a side job of grain weight. However, in case of intake of absolutely pure grain, function of sorting can be executed on two sieves.

At usual sorting well-known criteria for divisibility, first of all the linear sizes, weight windage of a zernovka (seed) are applied. At special - the specific mass, a form, character of a surface, color, conductivity. Here it is possible to refer calibration of sowing material of some cultures.

Drying. Is the operation which is considerably influencing quality and safety of production. Value of drying is especially shown when cleaning late-ripening cultures - viability and an exit of seeds increases, losses of solid at storage decrease. In connection with the requirements of power economy, the main ways of development of operation reduction of a specific consumption of traditional power materials and development of alternative power sources is. One of types of drying also is aeration in that case when the actual humidity of grain is more equilibrium.

Thresh. It is carried out in the course of cleaning of corn of food and fodder appointment, ears at direct combining are threshed in the field, and also on a hospital, in case of transportation of a harvest from the field. Seed corn is threshed only on a hospital, after drying of ears to a dry state.

Conservation. Includes the operations directed to essential and bystry delay or complete cessation of the biological processes proceeding in grain weight. The effect of conservation is most often reached by sealing and change of gas structure in intergrain spaces. At such conservation additive of various chemicals increasing its efficiency is possible.

Storage. In practice grain is stored in a dry and damp state. Parameters of a dry state are defined by culture, its standard humidity and storage period. It is the safest to store grain of fodder appointment in a damp state, especially in combination with conservation. There is a scientific practical experience of conservation - storage of damp grain of corn which allows to lower significantly energy consumption, to exclude completely thermal drying when cleaning with humidity of 20-40%.

Chemical processing. The compelled technological operation, but at the same time almost necessary, especially for protection of sowing material during storage and sowed in the field. It can be combined with function of stimulation and improvement of quality of finished goods.

Packing, packing. Operation, despite technological simplicity, is important in respect of marketing and realization of finished goods. Partially performs function of protection and duration of storage, first of all sowing material.

The listed range of technological operations has to be provided with the corresponding material and technical resources.

The analysis shows that from all operations of postharvest processing the largest volumes fall on separation of grain masses, their cleaning sorting.

Carry out separation on various material and technical resources - lines complete or separate cars of domestic and foreign execution. From foreign cars of PETKUS, CIMBRIA concern which provide the optimum modes of cleaning sorting on different cultures differ in traditionally high quality. From domestic - the car of the Horolsky and Karlovsky plants in which high efficiency of separation and extent of cleaning sorting of a product is combined.

Recently at the Horolsky mechanical plant the cars as close as possible to features of processing of seed grain are developed. Together with Institute of agriculture of a steppe zone (Dnipropetrovsk) the technical and technological line of preparation of high-quality sowing material is created and tested. The line is completed with the high-precision equipment providing soft processing without any traumatizing and decrease in high-quality and sowing qualities of seeds. Soft and exact processing is reached by the following receptions:

- horizontal configuration of the main cars, their placement on the raised frame -

- reduction of height of movement of grain -

- grain movement by low-speed noriya with plastic ladles -

- the sifting mode by means of vibration of working bodies -

- smooth change of the mode of sifting -

- free access to any car for the purpose of adjustment and cleaning.

The structure of the line switched on such machines and the equipment: a zernoseparator ploskoreshetny the BSHM-16-brands the camera aspiration the BSH-100.20 brands with the closed cycle of air and the diametrical fan - a table gravitational sorting PSS with the closed camera of boiling and the fan of a broach of air - noriya of raising of grain - the batcher weight semi-automatic brands Norma-with for an otveshivaniye of the set portion in the range of 5-50 kg - the car meshkozashivochnaya-the bunker accumulative - the control panel. The main technical and technological indicators characterizing work of the line are given in table 2.

The line is tested in the course of cleaning and postharvest processing of seed material of various grades of wheat and barley, and also hybrids and the self-pollinated lines of corn from a harvest of 2014. After processing on the line seeds with viability of 98-100%, purity of 98-99,5%, without any traumatizing and mechanical damage are received. Service of the line was carried out by one operator-mechanic, in case of packing packing of seeds in bags with laying on pallets 4 workers in addition were attracted.

Table 2. Technical and technological indicators and characteristic of the line for processing and preparation of high-quality sowing material

Indicators Characteristic
Productivity, t/hour:

- cleaning

- sorting

- enrichment

8

4

3

Initial seed material grain, leguminous and oil-bearing crops, hybrids of corn and parental components
Appointment cleaning of impurity - sorting behind the size, specific mass and aerodynamics of a seed - enrichment of fractions - packing and packing of sowing units
Structure - the domestic equipment zernoseparator, aspirator, table gravitational, batcher, meshkozashivochny machine, noriya, conveyor, bunker accumulative, control panel
Rated capacity, kW not less 25

The line is installed by means of usual construction and welding and fixing works, on the basis of installation assembly of the ready equipment and cars. Cars are placed in the standard building of 106,2 sq.m in size, 6,0 m high before overlapping. Special aspiration networks were not carried out except for only an air duct connecting a table gravitational to the fan of a broach of air and its emission out of borders of the building. Behind the building also the bunker reception for seed material and the bunker accumulative for waste was installed.

The general view of the line is presented in the drawing. It is easy to notice a condition of compactness and at the same time free access to the main cars and knots. If necessary the line can be understaffed with the calibration car for receiving separate sowing fractions.

Characteristics
Country producer Ukraine
Characteristics:
Country of manufacture:Ukraine
Information is up-to-date: 29.03.2019
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